Geosolve Apps

Layered Elastic Analysis with Non Linear Moduli

This software enables both linear and non-linear elastic analyses for forward calculation of stresses, strains and expected pavement life under alternative forms of traffic.
It has been found to provide realistic results in specific trials, but is still under development and the results are not intended to be used without independent verification.
It is made available at user risk, solely to facilitate feedback and suggestions for improvements which will be implemented as time permits.
So, far non-linearity included in the model comprises moduli that are either

  (i)  stress softening using the subgrade modulus exponent (n, see below) varying from 0 to -3.0

 (ii)  stress hardening  (n varying from 0 to +0.3)

(iii)  depth of confinement hardening (mm)


  1. For linear elastic analyses (eg CIRCLY) n=0.
  2. Where FWD data are available, non-linear analyses are often quoted with both C0 and n reported.
  3. For more information on modulus non-linearity see RIMS website
  4. As depth of confinement increases, the lateral support provides increased modulus, ie effective hardening of the layer modulus.
  5. For a presentation explaining the methodology and case histories, see Pavement Construction QA and NZIHT Conference